Our Constitution

The constitution explains the various roles of the JCR officers, the elections procedures and so on, and should act as guide for the all the official JCR businesses.

The constitution is available at the Tate Library, or alternatively you may email the Secretary for a copy.


The name of the body hereby constituted shall be Harris Manchester College Junior Common Room (the “JCR”).
The JCR shall be a self-governing body existing to:
(i) represent and advance the interests of its Members to the relevant authorities both inside and outside Harris Manchester College (the “College”);
(ii) promote the responsible and fair government of the College and University of Oxford;
(iii) provide orderly administration of the communal facilities that its members elect to enjoy; and
(iv) maintain and improve the College life of its Members.
The JCR shall foster:
(i) equality and respect for all its Members regardless of religion, gender, sexual orientation, race, age or disability; and
(ii) participation by being as democratic as possible, involving as wide a range of its members in its decision-making as possible and appropriate.


(1) The Junior Common Room (JCR) shall consist of “ordinary members” and “honorary members”.

(a) The Ordinary Members of the JCR are:
All undergraduate and graduate students, deferred students and visiting student members of Harris Manchester College.  All ordinary members have full voting rights.

(b) The Honorary Members of the JCR are:
Former students of the college and any other person(s) that the JCR may elect by a secret ballot.  Honorary members may use JCR facilities without the need to be accompanied by a JCR member.  However, they shall not have voting rights, access to JCR records/accounts or be permitted to attend JCR (Ordinary or Extraordinary) meetings.


(2) Any member shall have the right to opt out of JCR membership, but must do so by writing to the Secretary in the first three weeks of Michaelmas Term of any given year. Such persons may resume membership at any time by giving written notification to the Secretary.


(3) The JCR shall be affiliated to the Oxford University Students’ Union (OUSU), and other bodies determined by JCR meetings. The President, the OUSU/NUS Representative, and one other committee member (to be determined by the JCR Committee) shall hold voting rights at OUSU Council. The JCR may also be affiliated to the National Union of Students (NUS) and the Oxford Area NUS, as it currently is. Affiliation or disaffiliation motions shall be debated at an Extraordinary Meeting and require a two-thirds majority to pass.


(4) The JCR committee shall comprise the following officers with respective rights and obligations.  The only committee members permitted to hold more than one office simultaneously are:
The Vice President, who shall be selected from the committee, or any member listed in (4) (a) or Schedule 1, who wishes to be a member of either committee cited in Schedule 2 (i).

(a) The officers of the JCR Committee shall be:
The President
The Vice-President
The Secretary
The Treasurer
The Bar Manager
MCR President
Any other officer included in Schedule 1 (1)

It is a requirement that the posts of President, Secretary, and Treasurer be filled.  In the event that nobody stands for any one of these posts, they may be filled by co-option.  Any co-opted offices must be ratified by paper ballot at the next General JCR meeting.  If the process of co-option results in the position being contended, a by-election shall be held.

If a post falls vacant, any officer may undertake the functions of any other office until a by-election is held. If the posts of Women’s or Men’s Officer fall vacant the positions may only be filled by a female or male member of the committee respectively or shall remain vacant until a by-election is held. Officers may also, by mutual agreement, delegate duties to one another. In the event of the Secretary being unable to attend a JCR meeting another officer shall take the minutes.

b) Committee Meetings

(i) The JCR committee shall meet at least twice each term.

(ii) Quorum:
A quorum at Committee meetings shall be 4 officers and all matters of dispute shall be decided by a simple majority of those present with the Chair only having a casting vote.

(iii) Voting Rights:
At committee meetings all officers shall have voting rights except committee members listed in Schedule 1 (2) (i)

(iv) Attendance at meetings:
Attendance at committee meetings is compulsory for all officers except for committee members listed in Schedule 1(2)(i). If an officer is unable to attend a committee meeting, he/she will notify the President or Secretary before the scheduled time of that meeting.  Officers shall give a verbal or written report at each JCR Ordinary Meeting.

(c) Requirements of office:
The requirements of office for all committee members are contained in Schedule 2.

(d) JCR Committee Privileges
JCR officers shall be bestowed with privileges as deemed appropriate by the JCR, in recognition of the time and effort expended in the fulfilment of their duties.

(e) Schedules:
Schedules 1 and 2 still form part of the constitution; however, they are not subject to the constitution amendment requirements contained in section 25.  The schedules shall only be used for the following purposes:
(i) Schedule 1
This Schedule shall only contain a list of additional positions on the JCR committee not listed in clause 4(a).
(ii) Schedule 2
This Schedule shall only contain the requirements of office for the positions contained in Clause 4(a) and Schedule 1.


(5) All ordinary members of the JCR may stand for any office, with the exception of the following positions:
(a) The President. This position may only be held by an ordinary JCR member who may not concurrently sit on the MCR committee.
(b) Vice President. This position is appointed by the president from a member holding a position listed under Clause 4(a) or Schedule 1.
(c) The Bar Manager. Two nominees for this position are suggested by the committee and current bar manager, and are put forth for election, in accordance with section 6.


(6) (a) Election of Bar Manager
The bar manager’s post is an elected position. In every term with elections, the secretary will produce a notice ahead of the elections, calling for candidates for the bar manager post. The JCR committee will interview the candidates before the election, and select the two most promising candidates. The final two candidates will be put to a general vote as part of the general elections in that term, by secret ballot.

(b) Honorarium:
The Bar Manager shall receive an honorarium.  The JCR shall decide at the first meeting of Michaelmas Term how much the honorarium shall be and this amount shall be valid for that academic year. The honorarium shall be paid at the start of each term.

(c) Staffing:
Bar staff shall receive a rate of pay, as determined by the JCR committee at the beginning of each term, as an honorarium. They are not employees of the college.  Bar staff must be trained by the licensee before being eligible to work.  Both the Bar Manager and staff must adhere to the terms of the license displayed on the JCR notice board and in the bursary.

(d) Staff recruitment:
Prior to the Wednesday of 0th week in every term, the bar manager will invite applications for openings in the bar staff from all members of the JCR. Those who have already served as bar staff will have precedence in receiving the posts.

(e) Bar Recycling:
It is the responsibility of the bar manager to establish a rota of the bar staff to handle the recycling of cans and bottles from the JCR bar. The bar manager will liaise with the environment and charities officers to organize this.

(f) Bar Accounts:
In 0th week of each term the President and Treasurer shall be given the bar accounts by the Bar Manager responsible for the previous term.  When a Bar Manager ceases to hold the post, and at the handing over of the bar to the college in the vacations, there shall be a stock-take undertaken by the Treasurer or his/her appointee who shall have no pecuniary interest in the bar accounts.

(g) Attendance at Committee Meetings:
The Bar Manager shall attend a committee meeting at the request of the President or when there is an issue on the agenda relating to the bar.

(h) Extraordinary Measures:
The Bar Manager has the right to close the bar in extraordinary circumstances.

(i) Code of Practice:
A Code of Practice shall be agreed by the Bar Manager and the Bursar which will be available in the bar and bursary, and which shall be adhered to by all bar staff.


(7) Nominations for elections shall be held during Sixth Week of Michaelmas term, and the elections held early in Seventh Week. The terms of officers shall expire between the end of Eighth Week and the end of Ninth Week of Michaelmas term, at which point officers are expected to have cleared up any outstanding matters and made an orderly handover to their successor. The electorate shall be all members of the JCR, excepting the honorary members.


(8) The JCR President shall act as Returning Officer. In the absence of a President the committee shall nominate a committee member to act as Returning Officer. If the President is standing for a contested post the JCR Committee must nominate a suitable alternative Returning Officer, with no similar conflict of interest. The Returning Officer shall place a notice on the JCR notice board calling for nominations during the Sixth week of each term, and at least seven days before polling day. Any nomination must be proposed and seconded by JCR members and agreed by the candidate, who must be a JCR member with full voting rights. The Returning Officer shall close nominations at 8:00 p.m. three days before polling begins. Valid nominations shall be displayed two days before polling begins, along with the time and place of the hustings for contested positions, which shall be held at least one day before polling. The Returning Officer shall ensure the election is run fairly. The Returning Officer shall open the ballot; supervise the poll; conduct the count with the assistance of one other person (who shall not be a member of the JCR) and publicise the election results pursuant of sections (12) and (13).


(9) No publicity material relating to the elections may be produced by any JCR member. No posters are to be displayed, nor leaflets distributed.


(10) Voting at all elections shall be by secret (paper) ballot. Posts contested by two candidates shall be by simple majority. If three or more candidates are standing, STV (Single Transferable Vote as laid down by the Electoral Reform Society) shall be used. *(See appendix for a simple guide to counting STV Elections). There shall be a “Re-Open Nominations” choice in every such election. If “Re-Open Nominations” gains a simple majority of the votes cast, then further nominations and elections shall be held for that post.


(11) Polls shall be open from 8:00 a.m. to 6:45 p.m. in the JCR, and shall be supervised at all times by the Returning Officer, or his/her representatives.


(12) The Returning Officer shall conduct the count with the assistance of one other person who shall not be a member of the JCR. The count may be witnessed by the candidates or their representative. In the event of a tie in any election, the election process shall be repeated. In any such second election, the Returning Officer shall have a Casting Vote – his/her vote will be sealed in an envelope before polling closes. The Returning Officer shall keep the ballot papers for 7 days after the announcement of the results. Those candidates standing for contended positions who are unsuccessful shall be offered a vacant post in schedule 1, in the event that any schedule 1 post remain unfilled after the election.  This must then be ratified by paper ballot at the next Ordinary JCR meeting.


(13) Complaints and allegations of unfair conduct by a candidate or on behalf of a candidate must be made to the Returning Officer within forty-eight hours of the close of the poll. After the receipt of a complaint the Returning Officer shall call an election tribunal and communicate this to all members. The election tribunal shall consist of three officers, or ex-officers of the JCR, nominated by the JCR Committee. The Returning Officer and the persons by whom or against whom allegations have been made shall not serve on the election tribunal. The tribunal shall meet to investigate the allegations within 7 days after the complaint has been made. Those by whom and against whom the allegations have been made have the right to put their case before the tribunal in writing. The tribunal shall report its finding to the next Ordinary Meeting of the JCR. All decisions of the tribunal shall be final, subject only to an appeal at a JCR meeting, which may overturn the decision by a two-thirds majority.


(14) In the event of any office of the JCR falling vacant, it must be publicly announced and a nomination sheet placed on the notice board for four days. If there is competition for the post, a by-election shall be held, and may be conducted by a secret ballot at the next JCR Ordinary Meeting. If there is no competition, posts may be filled by co-option (and ratification at the next Ordinary Meeting) for the remainder of that term. If four or more officers resign at any one time, there shall be a full election. Presidential elections shall always be held by a full election.


(15) The JCR shall call at least two Ordinary Meetings each term, which shall be announced by the secretary at least three days in advance by notice on the notice board, and shall be attended by JCR members only.


(16) There shall be at least fifteen members present (the quorum) at Ordinary Meetings. If no quorum has arrived within ten minutes of the scheduled start, the meeting shall be abandoned. If the numbers present fall below the quorum, the meeting shall be closed.


(17) The President (or his/her nominee) shall chair JCR meetings. In the absence of the President (or his/her nominee) another Committee Member shall chair the meeting. If no Committee Member is present, the meeting shall elect a Chair. If there is a motion of no confidence in the Chair the meeting shall elect a substitute Chair to conduct the vote of that motion, who shall then continue as Chair if the motion is passed. The Chair has a casting vote only. Interpretation of these standing orders shall rest with the Chair.


(18) For Ordinary Meetings the agenda shall take the following format:
– Apologies for absence.
– Approval of the minutes of the previous meeting.
– Matters arising from the minutes of the previous meeting.
– Report by Officers and Representatives of the JCR.
– Votes for by-election vacancies, or ratifications of unfilled positions.
– Reading of motions to amend this constitution (which shall not be discussed at this meeting but deferred for debate at the next Ordinary Meeting).
– Motions concerning expenditure from JCR accounts or the Treasurer’s budget.
– Submitted motions.
– Any other business.
The agenda for Extraordinary Meetings shall contain only the motion(s) specified in the petition as stated in section (20).


(19) Meetings shall not be scheduled to start before 1:00 p.m. or after 8:00 p.m., and shall last no longer than two hours. Meetings may be extended beyond two hours only if the majority of those present desire.


(20) The President shall convene an Extraordinary Meeting within not less than three full days and not more than seven full days of receiving a petition of fifteen members of the JCR with voting rights. The Secretary shall publicise the meeting immediately upon receipt of the petition. An Extraordinary Meeting shall discuss only the specific motion or motions for which it has been called. The quorum for Extraordinary Meetings shall be 30.


(21) All motions for JCR meetings shall be proposed and seconded by a JCR member, and shall require forty-eight hours notice, both on the JCR notice board and in writing to the JCR Secretary, with the exception of procedural motions and emergency motions. Any motion or amendment moved during the meeting shall also be proposed and seconded. The proposer of any motion shall introduce it and shall be allowed a summing up speech. No new information may be introduced in the summing up. If new information is introduced in the summing up the motion is invalidated. Other than the proposer of a motion each member may speak on an item of business only once, except by the discretion of the Chair. All speakers shall address themselves to the Chair. No speech shall be permitted which is not directly relevant to the business under discussion. Every motion shall be voted on immediately following the last speech on it. Motions to elect Sub-Committees or Representatives must specify their function, term of office and method of election. The Budget Motion presented by the Treasurer at the first meeting of Michaelmas Term may be amended but must be voted on as a whole.


(22) The following procedural motions shall be passed by simple majority:
– that those present have no confidence in the Chair.
– that the meeting be closed.
– that the meeting be extended.
– that a quorum count be made.
– that the motion now be put.
– that the motion be voted on in parts (except for the Treasurer’s Budget in Michaelmas, which can be amended, but must be finally voted on as a whole).
– that a non-JCR member be permitted to speak.
– that the vote be by secret (paper) ballot.
– that there be a recount of votes.
– that the discussion not be minuted.
Procedural motions take priority over ordinary motions, but may be limited to a speech for, a speech against, and then the vote on the procedural motion should be taken. Raising a procedural motion does not preclude a member of the JCR from speaking on the ordinary motion.


(23) Voting shall be by show of hands. The Chair shall have the discretion to carry out any vote by secret (paper) ballot or by survey of the entire JCR membership. A request to the Chair for a vote by secret ballot shall not be refused. The passage of any motions at Ordinary Meetings shall require the support of a simple majority of those present, except those covered under section 25 Special Votes below. The passage of motions at Extraordinary Meetings shall require a two-thirds majority of those present.


(24) Postal votes will be accepted on any motion tabled for vote on the agenda. Each must specify which motion it pertains to and state whether the vote is for or against the motion. It must be signed by the voter, who must be a current JCR member with voting rights, and handed to any JCR officer at least one hour before the meeting is timetabled to start.

Email voting will be accepted as a valid form of voting by proxy, and shall be subject to the same conditions as above, however, without the requirement of a signature.


(25) The following motions shall be designated special motions:

(a) Special Motions:
-Changes to the Constitution (excluding motions to amend any Schedule to the constitution)
-Votes of no confidence, with the exception of votes of no confidence in the Chair as laid down in section (18) and (23)
-Votes to overturn an Election Tribunal – see section (13).
-Any motion that a JCR meeting elects to be carried out in this manner.

(b) Special Motion voting procedure:
All voting on special motions shall be by means of a secret ballot of all JCR ordinary members.  The president shall produce a ballot paper containing the motion, an option to vote for the motion, against the motion or abstain from voting and an “authenticating mark”.  The exact form of the “authenticating mark” shall be decided by the president but shall not take the form of the text of the motion or the voting options.  Ballot papers that do not contain the “authenticating mark” shall be void.  The president shall specify when the votes should be retuned, which should be not less than six hours after the ballot papers are issued.  All motions, except those specified in (c) below shall require a simple majority to pass.

(c) Qualified Majorities:
The following motions require a two-thirds majority of all votes received to pass.
(i) Motions to change the Constitution (excluding motions to amend any Schedule to the constitution)
(ii) Motions to overturn an Election Tribunal


(26) A member may ask the Chair to accept an emergency motion only if a matter has arisen in the forty-eight hours before the meeting. The meeting shall decide whether the motion should be discussed.


(27) Any JCR member may address the meeting and shall indicate his/her wish to speak by raising a hand. Any member may speak only once on each motion (unless given leave by the Chair) other than the proposer, who shall also be allowed to sum up immediately prior to a vote taking place. Raising a point of order, a request for a quorum count and a question or a procedural motion will not prevent a member also speaking to a motion.


(28) All Officers are expected to keep appropriate written records, to ensure accountability to the JCR and a smooth handover to successive officers. The President and Secretary shall ensure that an effective filing system is maintained in the JCR Office and is diligently used by all officers to preserve important information.


(1)  The additional officers of the JCR committee shall be:
The Entertainments Officer
The Welfare Officer
The OUSU/NUS Representative
The Sports Officer
The Newsletter Editor
The Academic Affairs Officer
The Visiting Students Officer
Public Relations Officer
Careers Officer
Environment and Charities Officer
Food and Wine Officer
Computer Officer

(2) Committees within the JCR Committee
Committees within the JCR committee may be formed by any officer, should the need arise.


(1) The President:
The President shall be the chief officer of the JCR and arrange JCR representation at Governing Body meetings; chair JCR meetings; represent the JCR and act in accordance with its interests; assist and advise individual JCR members and ensure that officers and representatives of the JCR fulfil their mandated duties. The President may vote at OUSU Council meetings as mandated by JCR meetings pursuant to section (15) and may attend the Proctors and Assessors meetings.

The President shall call JCR Committee Meetings at least four times each term and act as Returning Officer in all JCR elections, unless he/she is a candidate. The President shall carry out votes by survey of the entire JCR when appropriate and have ultimate responsibility for the administration of the JCR.

(2) The Secretary:
shall keep and publish on the JCR notice board minutes of all JCR meetings and JCR Committee meetings 2 days before the next meeting and make minutes available for inspection by individual members. The Secretary shall compile the agenda for JCR meetings and accept motions submitted by JCR members and arrange their discussion. The Secretary shall maintain up to date copies of this Constitution; bring such a copy to each JCR meeting; provide a copy to any JCR member who requests it and ensure that a copy is available on the JCR website. The Secretary shall inform officers or representatives in writing of mandates on them or forthcoming votes of no confidence in them and write such letters as mandated by JCR meetings and maintain a register of honorary members pursuant to clause (1)(b).

(3) The Treasurer:
shall keep regular and complete records of all JCR accounts and publish termly accounts. The Treasurer shall report to each JCR Ordinary Meeting how much money is available for expenditure under the provisions of the previous budget motions. At each Ordinary Meeting the Treasurer shall also present a report on the Bar Accounts. The Treasurer shall liaise with Bursary staff on financial matters and monitor the expenditure of all affiliated clubs. He/she shall oversee the keeping of the Bar Accounts and arrange periodic stock-takes and may authorize the payment of the honorarium from the Bar Account. The Treasurer shall be responsible for the administration of JCR accounts; hold chequebooks and be a signatory to all such JCR accounts. The Treasurer shall prepare the JCR accounts and submit them for independent audit at the end of Trinity Term and carry out an inventory of JCR property annually.

Treasurer’s Michaelmas Report:
At the first Ordinary Meeting of Michaelmas Term the Treasurer shall circulate a full audited statement of income and expenditure for the previous academic year and propose a budget motion of proposals for all regular JCR expenditure throughout the coming year. The budget shall set aside money for authorized spending for each of the three forthcoming terms, including the contribution to the Ball Fund. It shall also contain proposals for any levies and any fees for reaffiliation to all those organizations to which the JCR has been affiliated during the previous year, provided the fee is payable from the JCR account.

(4) The Welfare Officer:
shall deputise for and assist the President as necessary and may attend meetings of OUSU Welfare Committee and Mature Students Committee as representative of the JCR. The Welfare Officer shall attend the JCR Committee meetings and update the Committee on welfare matters.  The Welfare Officer shall be responsible for providing information and advice to JCR members on all aspects relating to personal welfare, including accommodation (both in and out of college), personal finance, health and domestic matters relating to College life. At the request of individual students the Welfare Officer shall inform and negotiate with relevant members of College staff on welfare matters.

(5) The Entertainments Officer
shall, in negotiation with the JCR Committee, arrange a termly budget of funds to be spent on entertainment and liaise with the JCR Committee to arrange suitable dates for entertainment events. In planning events the Entertainments Officer will take into account the diverse tastes of the JCR members; be responsible for all bookings and hiring of artistes and equipment; purchase and utilise any decorations required for particular events. In conjunction with the Publicity and Press Officer, he/she will publicise all events in a suitable manner and in good time.  The Entertainments Officer will be responsible for giving the Bar Manager as much notice as possible but a minimum of 10 days notice of any event involving the bar.

(6) The OUSU/NUS Officer
shall ensure proper liaison between the JCR and OUSU and the NUS and may attend OUSU Council/General Meetings and the NUS Annual Conference where they may exercise the voting rights of the JCR in accordance with the mandates of any meetings pursuant to section 4. The OUSU/NUS Representative shall assist and advise individual JCR members concerning those organizations to which the JCR is affiliated; publicize OUSU Council and General Meetings; report back to JCR decisions of OUSU and NUS; and act as Returning Officer for any OUSU elections or referenda.

(7) The Visiting Students’ Officer
shall promote the interests and well being of all visiting students and may, in liaison with the Entertainments Officer, arrange social events that cater specifically for visiting students.

(8) The Academic Affairs Officer
shall act as point of contact for students with concerns about their studies which they have been unable to resolve with their tutor and direct them to other sources of assistance within the college or university. S/he shall attend the Academic Affairs Committee meeting every fortnight and disseminate any information on academic matters emanating from that committee.

(9) The Sports and Leisure Officer
shall encourage and coordinate sporting activities within the college, purchase and maintain JCR sports equipment, and keep the JCR informed about sporting events within the University. The Sports Officer shall maintain a record of the condition of the pool table and other JCR equipment and ensure reimbursement for any damage or losses incurred by students or College conference guests. The Sports and Leisure officer shall also be responsible for other JCR leisure equipment, such as board games.

(10) The Careers Officer
shall liaise with the University Careers Service, both to investigate opportunities for mature students, and to raise their awareness of Harris Manchester and other mature students in the University. He/she shall gather and disseminate appropriate careers information within College, and publicise Careers events.

(11) The Public Relations Officer
shall work with the Entertainments Officer to publicise JCR events both within and outside College. He/she will work to achieve good publicity for the JCR and the College within the local student press, the University and the outside world. The officer shall be responsible for updating the JCR website/blog. The officer shall be responsible for liaising with the Librarian to ascertain and meet the IT needs of JCR members; provide information and advice on all aspects of IT provision within College and university and assist in the orderly running of the Computer Room.

(12) The Newsletter Editor
shall produce a College Newsletter on a regular basis to help foster community spirit and let people know what is going on.

(13) The Environment and Charities Officer
shall liaise with the bar manager to arrange the collection, storage and recycling of cans and bottles from the JCR bar. The officer may attend OUSU Environment Committee and inform the JCR of its activities. The Environment and Charities Officer shall investigate and instigate energy saving initiatives within the College in liaison with the Bursary staff.  The Environment and Charities officer will liaise with charities, and be responsible for notifying the JCR of possible options for charitable work.

(14) The Food and Wine Officer
shall deal with culinary issues raised by the JCR, and channel feedback from students to the Catering Manager. S/he shall also be responsible for selecting and buying JCR wine.

(15) The IT Officer
shall be responsible for liaising with the Librarian to ascertain and meet the IT needs of JCR members; provide information and advice on all aspects of IT provision within College and university; assist in the orderly running of the Computer Room. The IT officer shall also maintain and update the JCR website.


The Single Transferable Vote, or STV, initially allocates an individual’s vote to their most preferred candidate, and then subsequently transfers unneeded or unused votes after candidates are either elected or eliminated, according to the voter’s stated preferences.

In STV the voter ranks the list of candidates in order of preference. In other words (under the most common ballot design), she places a ‘1’ beside her most preferred candidate, a ‘2’ beside her second most preferred, and so on. The ballot paper submitted by the voter therefore contains an ordinal list of candidates. In the ballot paper shown below, the preferences of the voter are as follows:
John Citizen
Mary Hill
Jane Doe

Finding the winners
In an STV election a candidate requires a certain minimum number of votes – the quota (or threshold) – to be elected.  The quota is the total number of votes cast, divided by the number of candidates to be elected, plus one vote.  So if only one candidate needs to be elected then you need to divide the total number of votes by two.  By following this formula, no more than the required number of candidates can reach the quota.

However, any candidate with either too many, or too few, votes to be elected has votes transferred to other candidates, and the process continues until all positions have been filled. The candidates to whom votes are transferred are determined by the preferences given by voters on the ballot paper.

To begin an election only first preferences are tallied and any candidate who has more than the quota is declared elected immediately. If a candidate has more than the quota their surplus is transferred to other candidates. If enough candidates have still not reached the quota, then the candidates with the fewest votes are eliminated one by one, and their votes are transferred, until enough candidates have reached the quota so that every seat has been filled. When, at any stage, a candidate is either elected or eliminated they are removed from the remainder of the count and no further votes may be transferred to them.

In full, an STV election proceeds according to the following steps:

Step I: Any candidate with at least a quota of votes is declared elected.
Step II: If any candidate has received more than a quota of votes then the excess or ‘surplus’ of votes is transferred to other candidates remaining in the count. If any candidate has now reached a quota they are declared elected and the count returns to Step I. Otherwise it proceeds to Step III.
Step III: The candidate with the fewest votes is eliminated or ‘excluded’ and their votes are transferred to other candidates remaining in the count. The process is then repeated from Step I until all seats have been filled.


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